Friday, March 19, 2010

MOST EXTREME WHITE DWARF BINARY SYSTEM FOUND WITH ORBIT OF JUST 5 MINUTES

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An international team of astronomers, including Professor Tom Marsh and Dr Danny Steeghs from the University of Warwick, have shown that the two stars in the binary HM Cancri definitely revolve around each other in a mere 5.4 minutes. This makes HM Cancri the binary star with by far the shortest known orbital period. It is also the smallest known binary. The binary system is no larger than 8 times the diameter of the Earth which is the equivalent of no more than a quarter of the distance from the Earth to the Moon.

The binary system consists of two white dwarfs. These are the burnt- out cinders of stars such as our Sun, and contain a highly condensed form of helium, carbon and oxygen. The two white dwarfs in HM Cancri are so close together that mass is flowing from one star to the other. HM Cancri was first noticed as an X-ray source in 1999 showing a 5.4 minutes periodicity but for a long time it has remained unclear whether this period also indicated the actual orbital period of the system. It was so short that astronomers were reluctant to accept the possibility without solid proof.

The team of astronomers, led by Dr Gijs Roelofs of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center of Astrophysics, and including Professor Tom Marsh and Dr Danny Steeghs at the University of Warwick in the UK, have now used the world's largest telescope, the Keck telescope on Hawaii, to prove that the 5.4 minute period is indeed the binary period of the system. This has been done by detecting the velocity variations in the spectral lines in the light of HM Cancri. These velocity variations are induced by the Doppler effect, caused by the orbital motion of the two stars revolving around each other. The Doppler effect causes the lines to periodically shift from blue to red and back.

The observations of HM Cancri were an ultimate challenge due to the extremely short period that needed to be resolved and the faintness of the binary system. At a distance of close to 16,000 light years from Earth, the binary shines at a brightness no more than one millionth of the faintest stars visible to the naked eye.

Professor Tom Marsh from the University of Warwick said; “This is an intriguing system in a number of ways: it has an extremely short period; mass flows from one star and crashes down onto the equator of the other in a region comparable in size to the English Midlands where it liberates more than the Sun's entire power in X-rays. It could also be a strong emitter of gravitational waves which may one day be detected from this type of star system.”

Dr Danny Steeghs of the University of Warwick, said " A few years ago we proposed that HM Cancri was indeed an interacting binary consisting of two white dwarfs and that the 5.4 minute period was the orbital period. It is very gratifying to see this model confirmed by our observations, especially since earlier attempts had been thwarted by bad weather."

"This type of observations is really at the limit of what is currently possible. Not only does one need the biggest telescopes in the world, but they also have to be equipped with the best instruments available", explains Professor Paul Groot of the Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands.

"The binary HM Cancri is a real challenge for our understanding of stellar and binary evolution," adds Dr Gijs Nelemans of the Radboud University."We know the system must have come from two normal stars that somehow spiralled together in two earlier episodes of mass transfer, but the physics of this process is very poorly known. The system is also a big opportunity for general relativity. It must be one of the most copious emitters of gravitational waves. These distortions of space-time we hope to detect directly with the future LISA satellite, and HM Cancri will be a cornerstone system for this mission."

(Photo: University of Warwick)

University of Warwick

HOW TO SEE THROUGH OPAQUE MATERIALS

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Materials such as paper, paint, and biological tissue are opaque because the light that passes through them is scattered in complicated and seemingly random ways. A new experiment conducted by researchers at the City of Paris Industrial Physics and Chemistry Higher Educational Institution (ESPCI) has shown that it's possible to focus light through opaque materials and detect objects hidden behind them, provided you know enough about the material.

The experiment is reported in the current issue of Physical Review Letters, and is the subject of Viewpoint in APS Physics (physics.aps.org) by Elbert van Putten and Allard Moskof the University of Twente.

In order to demonstrate their approach to characterize opaque substances, the researchers first passed light through a layer of zinc oxide, which is a common component of white paints. By studying the way the light beam changed as it encountered the material, they were able to produce a numerical model called a transmission matrix, which included over 65,000 numbers describing the way that the zinc oxide layer affected light. They could then use the matrix to tailor a beam of light specifically to pass through the layer and focus on the other side. Alternatively, they could measure light emerging from the opaque material, and use the matrix to assemble of an image of an object behind it.

In effect, the experiment shows that an opaque material could serve as a high quality optical element comparable to a conventional lens, once a sufficiently detailed transmission matrix is constructed. In addition to allowing us to peer through paper or paint, and into cells, the technique opens up the possibility that opaque materials might be good optical elements in nano-scale devices, at levels where the construction of transparent lenses and other components is particularly challenging.

(Photo: American Physical Society)

American Physical Society

MIT RESEARCHERS DISCOVER NEW WAY OF PRODUCING ELECTRICITY

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A team of scientists at MIT have discovered a previously unknown phenomenon that can cause powerful waves of energy to shoot through minuscule wires known as carbon nanotubes. The discovery could lead to a new way of producing electricity, the researchers say.

The phenomenon, described as thermopower waves, "opens up a new area of energy research, which is rare," says Michael Strano, MIT's Charles and Hilda Roddey Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering, who was the senior author of a paper describing the new findings that appeared in Nature Materials on March 7. The lead author was Wonjoon Choi, a doctoral student in mechanical engineering.

Like a collection of flotsam propelled along the surface by waves traveling across the ocean, it turns out that a thermal wave — a moving pulse of heat — traveling along a microscopic wire can drive electrons along, creating an electrical current.

The key ingredient in the recipe is carbon nanotubes — submicroscopic hollow tubes made of a chicken-wire-like lattice of carbon atoms. These tubes, just a few billionths of a meter (nanometers) in diameter, are part of a family of novel carbon molecules, including buckyballs and graphene sheets, that have been the subject of intensive worldwide research over the last two decades.

In the new experiments, each of these electrically and thermally conductive nanotubes was coated with a layer of a highly reactive fuel that can produce heat by decomposing. This fuel was then ignited at one end of the nanotube using either a laser beam or a high-voltage spark, and the result was a fast-moving thermal wave traveling along the length of the carbon nanotube like a flame speeding along the length of a lit fuse. Heat from the fuel goes into the nanotube where it travels thousands of times faster than in the fuel itself. As the heat feeds back to the fuel coating, a thermal wave is created that is guided along the nanotube. With a temperature of 3,000 kelvins, this ring of heat speads along the tube 10,000 times faster than the normal spread of this chemical reaction. The heating produced by that combustion, it turns out, also pushes electrons along the tube, creating a substantial electrical current.

Combustion waves — like this pulse of heat hurtling along a wire — "have been studied mathematically for more than 100 years," Strano says, but he was the first to predict that such waves could be guided by a nanotube or nanowire and that this wave of heat could push an electrical current along that wire.

In the group's initial experiments, Strano says, when they wired up the carbon nanotubes with their fuel coating in order to study the reaction, "lo and behold, we were really surprised by the size of the resulting voltage peak" that propagated along the wire.

After further development, the system now puts out energy, in proportion to its weight, about 100 times greater than an equivalent weight of lithium-ion battery.

The amount of power released, he says, is much greater than that predicted by thermoelectric calculations. While many semiconductor materials can produce an electric potential when heated, through something called the Seebeck effect, that effect is very weak in carbon. "There's something else happening here," he says. "We call it electron entrainment since part of the current appears to scale with wave velocity."

The thermal wave, he explains, appears to be entraining the electrical charge carriers (either electrons or electron holes) just as an ocean wave can pick up and carry a collection of debris along the surface. This important property is responsible for the high power produced by the system, Strano says.

Because this is such a new discovery, he says, it's hard to predict yet exactly what the practical applications will be. But he suggests that one possible application would be in enabling new kinds of ultra-small electronic devices — for example, a devices the size of grains of rice, perhaps a sensor or treatment device that could be injected into the body. Or it could lead to "environmental sensors that could be scattered like dust in the air," he says.

In theory, he says, such devices could maintain their power indefinitely until used, unlike batteries whose charge leaks away gradually as they sit unused. And while the individual nanowires are tiny, Strano suggests that they could be made in large arrays in order to supply significant amounts of power for larger devices.

One area the researchers plan to pursue is the fact that their theory predicts that using different kinds of reactive materials for the coating, the wave front could oscillate, thus producing an alternating current. That opens up a variety of possibilities, Strano says, because alternating current is the basis for radio waves such as cell phone transmissions, but present energy-storage systems all produce direct current. "Our theory predicted these oscillations before we began to observe them in our data," he says.

Also, the present versions of the system have low efficiency, because much power is being given off as heat and light. The team plans to work on improving that efficiency.

MIT

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